Taiwan ikonzanso maphunziro a usilikali m’malo omwe ali pakati pa kukakamizidwa ndi China | Nkhani Zankhondo


Taipei, Taiwan – Kukonzekera nkhondo yomwe ingachitike kuchokera ku China ndi chiyembekezo chomwe chakhazikika ku Taiwan kuyambira pomwe boma lake linathawira pachilumbachi kumapeto kwa nkhondo yapachiweniweni ku China mu 1949. Panali kukumana katatu pakati pa 1950 ndi 1990s, ndipo tsopano pangakhale chifukwa. kudandaula kachiwiri pamene gulu lankhondo la China People’s Liberation Army (PLA) limaliza ntchito yofuna kupititsa patsogolo usilikali.

Mu pepala loyera lomwe latulutsidwa posachedwapa, Unduna wa Zachitetezo ku Taiwan udati PLA idakulitsa kuthekera kotsekereza ma eyapoti ndi madoko akulu aku Taiwan, pomwe Pentagon idati “atha kukakamiza utsogoleri wa Taiwan pagome lokambirana” kuyambira 2027. .

Kuyambira pomwe adakhala paudindo mu 2016, Purezidenti Tsai Ing-wen adayang’ana kwambiri pakukweza luso la asitikali ndikuchita kampeni yayikulu yogulira zida ku United States popeza ubale wa boma lake ndi Beijing wadetsedwa. Mu Ogasiti, oyang’anira a Purezidenti waku US a Joe Biden adavomereza kugulitsa kwake koyamba kwa $ 750m pa zida ku Taiwan, pambuyo poti atsogolere Donald Trump adavomereza $ 5.1bn pakugulitsa mu 2020.

Unduna wa Zachitetezo ku Taiwan tsopano ukupempha ndalama zokwana $9bn pazaka zisanu zikubwerazi kuti zithandizire chitetezo cha Taiwan. Ndalamayi idzakhala yowonjezera ku bajeti yomwe ilipo, komanso kukula kwake.

Pomwe madera aku Taiwan akuda, ikuyenera kuganiziranso funso lina lalikulu ngati anthu wamba adzakhala okonzeka.

Nzika zambiri zachimuna zimayenera kumaliza ntchito zadziko zomwe ziyenera, mwalingaliro, kuwakonzekeretsa kuti awonjezere usilikali, omwe tsopano ali ndi pafupifupi 188,000, malinga ndi deta ya bajeti, ndikukwera ku 215,000 ngati makontrakitala ndi ophunzitsidwa akugwiritsidwa ntchito mu equation.

Malire aikidwa pa usilikali pazifukwa za bajeti komanso ndale – madera ambiri a demokalase sakhala ndi magulu akuluakulu ankhondo – kotero kuti malo osungiramo nyama angathandize kwambiri kubwezeretsa misewu yophulika mabomba, kukonza magalimoto ndi kukumba maenje. Pakachitika chiwembu, pafupifupi wani miliyoni kapena kuposerapo mwa asilikali osungika chitetezo ameneŵa, amene amaliza ntchito yawo ya dziko m’zaka zisanu ndi zitatu zapitazi, atha kuitanidwa m’chigawo choyamba cha magulu ankhondo.

‘Ophunzira ndi olemetsa kwambiri’

Ngakhale kuti ali ndi udindo wofunikira, komabe, dziko la Taiwan likukumana ndi mafunso okhudza ngati nkhokwe zake zimatha kumenyana kwenikweni komanso ngati pali dongosolo lokwanira loti liziwayang’anira ngati adasonkhana panthawi ya nkhondo.

Akamaliza ntchito ya dziko, yomwe idachepetsedwa kukhala miyezi inayi kuchokera chaka chimodzi pafupifupi zaka khumi zapitazo, osungitsa chitetezo ambiri amayenera kubwereranso kwa mlungu wathunthu wophunzitsidwa kukumbukira kaye maulendo awiri kuti awonjezere luso lawo. Muzochita, komabe, zotsatira zakhala zosakanikirana.

“Ntchito yatsopano yokakamiza ya miyezi inayi sikupereka nthawi yokwanira yophunzitsira maluso osiyanasiyana komanso kuwapatsa chidziwitso chokwanira pakuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi limodzi,” atero a Kitsch Liao Yen-fan, mlangizi wankhondo za cyber komanso zankhondo ku Doublethink Lab ku Taiwan. . “Izi zikutanthauza kuti ophunzitsidwa atsopano a miyezi inayi ndi olemetsa kwambiri kumagulu omwe amapatsidwa kuposa mphamvu zenizeni zankhondo zomwe zingadalire.”

Wen Lii, mkulu wa ofesi ya chipani cholamula cha Democratic Progressive Party for the Matsu Islands, gulu la zisumbu zolamulidwa ndi Taiwan zomwe zili m’mphepete mwa nyanja kum’mwera chakum’maŵa kwa China. adauza Al Jazeera kuti adathera ntchito yake yadziko lonse kuphunzira kuyendetsa ndi kukonza galimoto yokhala ndi zida.

Ngakhale kuti anaona kuti zimenezi n’zofunika, ananenanso kuti pali mpata woti asinthe.

“Ndidachita gawo lothandizira – udindo wanga unali wofanana ndi wa umakanika ndi wothandizira aphunzitsi – koma izi zikugwirizana ndi cholinga cha gulu lathu komanso ntchito yomwe anthu omwe amapita ku usilikali poyamba,” adauza Al Jazeera. .

Anati othawa kwawo atha kupindula ndi “ntchito yodziwika bwino” yofotokoza momwe angathandizire asitikali anthawi zonse panthawi yankhondo poyang’ana kwambiri zogwirira ntchito, thandizo loyamba ndi chithandizo chofananira – mfundo yomwe idanenedwanso ndi akatswiri.

Chitetezo cha Taiwan chakhala chikuyang’ana kwambiri “chitetezo cha asymmetric” kapena “kukana mdani m’mphepete mwa nyanja, kuwukira panyanja, kuuwononga m’malo otsetsereka, ndikuuwononga m’mphepete mwa nyanja,” malinga ndi Unduna wa Zachitetezo. M’malo mwake, izi zikutanthauza kuti ngakhale kuti ndi PLA, Taiwan ikufuna kudzipanga kukhala chandamale chosawoneka bwino kuti chiwukidwe potha kukana kwanthawi yayitali.

Pachifukwachi, Unduna wa Zachitetezo wakhazikitsa bungwe la All-Out Defense Mobilization Agency kuti liyang’anire nkhokwe kuyambira Januware.

Ntchito yoyeserera iyambanso mwezi womwewo kuti ikonzenso maphunziro okumbukira, kuyesa regimen yamasiku 14 pa osunga 15,000 okumbukiridwa. Posachedwapa zokumbukira zina zanenanso za kusintha kwa kamvekedwe kamene asitikali amawachitira, kutanthauza kuti phindu lawo limadziwikanso.

Cy Chen, yemwe amagwira ntchito yogulitsira makasitomala, adauza Al Jazeera zomwe adakumana nazo pokumbukira zaka zitatu zapitazo adamva ngati “misasa yachilimwe” ya anyamata, koma pakukumbukira kwake kwachiwiri adawona kusintha kwakukulu kwa kamvekedwe pomwe gulu lake likuwunikira momwe angachitire. gwiritsani ntchito mfuti ndikuchita mwaluso.

Monga mmene mtsogoleri wathu wina ananenera, ‘tinaphunzira kuwombera ndi kubisala koma sitinaphunzire kuthawa kapena kumenya nkhondo.’ Ndikuganiza kuti ndondomekoyi ndikuwonetsetsa kuti dziko likakufunani, ndipo musaope kugwiritsa ntchito mfuti komanso kupitilira apo, ndondomekoyi ikutikumbutsanso za (kulemekeza) mtendere,” adatero.

‘Ntchito yochuluka yoti ichitike’

Kupititsa patsogolo luso lothandizira ndi maphunziro ndi gawo limodzi chabe la equation, komabe, ngati Taiwan ikufunadi kukhala ndi gulu lankhondo lachitetezo. Chifukwa chimodzi, asitikali aku Taiwan ali pachiwopsezo chifukwa ali ndi asitikali pafupifupi 90,000 omwe sanatumizidwe (NCOs) – adalemba asitikali omwe adayamba kulowa ndikukwera m’magulu – koma asitikali 44,127 ndi asitikali 36,232 omwe adalowa usilikali. udindo wapamwamba, malinga ndi deta ya bajeti ya boma.

Wen-Ti Sung, mphunzitsi ku Australian National University’s Taiwan Studies Programme, adati Taiwan ili ndi pafupifupi 40 peresenti ya maofesala ndi 60 peresenti ya ma NCO omwe amafunikira kuyang’anira, kuphunzitsa ndi kugwirizanitsa obwezeretsedwa monga gawo la “plug ndi kusewera” kwakukulu ku Taiwan. kapena “okonzeka kupita” njira yodzitchinjiriza yokhazikika pagulu lankhondo laling’ono komanso anthu wamba ambiri.

Asitikali aku Taiwan, komabe, akhala akusankha ntchito yosasangalatsa kwa nthawi yayitali chifukwa cha malipiro ochepa, zopindulitsa komanso chikhalidwe komanso mayanjano oyipa ndi a Taiwan. lamulo lankhondo ulamuliro, pamene asilikali anachita mbali yofunika kwambiri kupondereza ufulu wa anthu. “Pali ntchito yambiri yoti ichitidwe pankhani yopangitsa chitetezo kukhala ntchito yayikulu yamtundu wamtunduwu yomwe imakopa anthu omwe ali ndi luso lapamwamba ku Taiwan,” adatero Sung.

Asitikali ankhondo aku Taiwan a ‘chule’ amabowola mobisala pamtunda wa makilomita ochepa kuchokera ku China pachilumba chakutali cha Kinmen, Taiwan. [File: Wally Santana/ AP]

Pepala latsopano loyera lodzitchinjiriza lomwe lidalengezedwa koyambirira kwa mwezi uno likupereka maphunziro abwino a nyumba, chisamaliro cha ana komanso maphunziro opititsa patsogolo ntchito, koma sizikudziwika ngati zingakhale zokwanira kunyengerera anthu kuti alembetse.

Pakadali pano, lieutenant amangopanga 51,915 New Taiwan Dollars ($1,867) pamwezi pomwe msilikali – amodzi mwamaudindo apamwamba kwambiri m’magulu ankhondo ambiri – amapanga 78,390 NTD ($2,816), osaposa malipiro apamwezi a 54,320 NTD kamodzi. Ndalama za penshoni zidadulidwanso mu 2018 chifukwa boma silinathe kulinganiza mabuku ndi kuchuluka kwa anthu komanso kusintha kwachuma ku Taiwan.

“Mukuwapanga bwanji [professional recruits] kukhulupirira kulowa usilikali si kudzipereka kwa moyo wonse, atha kukhala ndi moyo wachiwiri kunja kwa usilikali? Izi ndi zomwe zidachitika ndi asitikali aku US, anthu ambiri akachoka pantchito amakhala ndi moyo wachiwiri, “atero a Liao a Doublethink, pofotokoza momwe Taiwan ikuchitira “mpikisano” motsutsana ndi nthawi.

“Sizokhudza kugula zida zonse zazikulu, kupeza zida zonse zomwe mungathe, koma kusintha malingaliro ndi chikhalidwe ndi anthu onse kuti akhale okonzeka, ndikupanga zoletsa pakapita nthawi.”

Kumbali inayi, pali kukambirana kopitilira ndi aphungu ndi akatswiri ankhondo ku Taiwan ndi US kuti aphunzitse gulu lankhondo kapena kungokhala ndi anthu odzipereka okonzeka kupereka chakudya ndi pogona pa akachisi ambiri a ku Taiwan.

Chitetezo cha anthu wamba

Pakalipano, zokambirana zing’onozing’ono zakonzedwa ndi magulu kunja kwa boma ndi magulu monga Taiwan Military and Police Tactics Research and Development Association (TTRDA), yomwe imaphunzitsa anthu wamba luso monga kuwombera mwanzeru, kupita ku Forward Alliance, yomwe imaphunzitsa luso ngati choyamba- thandizo kwa masoka aakulu.

“Tikukhulupirira kuti anthu okhazikika komanso okonzeka angathandize kwambiri ngati akuluakulu aku Beijing asankha kugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu. Izi zikutanthauza kuti kuseri kwa asitikali amphamvu a 180,000 mpaka 200,000, tili ndi dongosolo lachitetezo ndi anthu wamba omwe amaphunzitsidwa ndikukhala okonzeka kusonkhana pakagwa mwadzidzidzi. Lingaliro ndiloti anthu wamba angagwirizane ndi mphamvu ya gulu lathu lankhondo, “atero Enoch Wu, woyambitsa Forward Alliance yemwe adagwirapo ntchito m’gulu lankhondo lapadera la Taiwan.

Mgwirizanowu umaphunzitsa anthu mmene angadzitetezere, mmene angachitire ndi anthu ovulala, mmene angagwirire ntchito limodzi monga gulu, ndiponso mmene angatetezere malo amene ali pafupi.

“Zinthu izi ndizomwe zimapangidwira kuyankha mwadzidzidzi kaya tikukumana ndi chivomezi kapena vuto lalikulu kwambiri, nkhondo yankhondo yokhala ndi anthu wamba omwe amaphunzitsidwa kuti athandizire omwe akuyankha mwadzidzidzi,” adawonjezera Wu.

Koma dziko la Taiwan tsopano liyenera kulimbana ndi kuchulukirachulukira kwa nkhondo zamaganizo za “grey zone” ndi njira zina zolimbana zomwe zitha kulola China “kulanda Taiwan popanda kumenya nkhondo”. Izi zimachokera ku nkhondo za cyber komanso zabodza, mpaka kuthamangitsa zombo za alonda a m’mphepete mwa nyanja ku Taiwan, kulondera ku Taiwan Strait, ndi kutumiza ndege za PLA ku Taiwan’s Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), yomwe ili pamtunda wamtunda ndi nyanja womwe umayang’aniridwa ndi asitikali.

Pakati pa Seputembara 16 chaka chatha ndi Julayi 31, ndege zaku China zidapanga ma 554 ADIZ ku Taiwan, malinga ndi Unduna wa Zachitetezo. Iwo anapitiriza ndi ndege nthawi zonse mu September ndi adagwira ntchito mozungulira October 1, Tsiku la Dziko la China, kutumiza pafupifupi ndege 150 ku ADIZ kwa masiku anayi.

Olondera ameneŵa ali ndi “zolinga zambiri, kuphatikizapo kuyesa mayankho a Taiwan, kuphunzitsa oyendetsa ndege a PRC, kutumiza zizindikiro zochenjeza ku boma la Taiwan, ndi kusonkhezera kukonda dziko lawo kunyumba,” anatero Bonnie Glaser, mkulu wa pulogalamu ya ku Asia pa German Marshall Fund ya ku United States. Glaser adalongosola kukula kwa China kukhala “kodetsa nkhawa” ngakhale kuti samaganiza kuti kumenya nkhondo kuli pafupi.

Pakadali pano, asitikali aku Taiwan ati aziwunika momwe zinthu ziliri komanso kusamala kuti apewe kuchulukirachulukira.

Kaya US, yemwe ndi mnzake wofunikira kwambiri ku Taiwan, angadziteteze sizikudziwika mwadala malinga ndi mfundo zake zopitiliza “strategic kusamveka bwino” yomwe imadutsa mzere pakati pa kuteteza Taiwan osakwiyitsa China. Pansi pa lamulo la 1979 Taiwan Relations Act, US idalonjeza “kupangitsa kuti Taiwan zolemba zodzitchinjiriza ndi chitetezo zitha kupezeka mu kuchuluka komwe kungafunikire kuti Taiwan ikhalebe ndi luso lodzitchinjiriza.”

Zitsimikizo zake, komabe, zimasiya kulonjeza thandizo lankhondo.

Chiyambireni udindowu, a Biden adanenanso zingapo zosonyeza kuti angathandizire demokalase yomwe ili pagulu pazachiwembu, koma akuluakulu a White House adasokoneza ndemanga zake pambuyo pake.

Othandizana nawo ambiri omwe Taiwan angatetezedwe, m’pamenenso idzathetsa kuthekera kwa China kuukira Taiwan, Sung wa ANU adauza Al Jazeera.

Panthawiyo zidzafunikanso “kuthekera komanso kufuna kwandale” kuti achite ntchitoyi, adatero. Pambuyo pa US, mndandanda wa ogwirizana nawo ungaphatikizepo Japan, South Korea, Australia, komanso mayiko ena aku Europe omwe awonetsa nkhawa za tsogolo la Taiwan Strait.

“Tikuwona kuyerekezera komwe kumapangitsa kuti chaka cha 2027 chikhale chocheperako kapena chocheperapo ponena za China kukhala ndi ukulu wokwanira wamba kuti achite bwino, ndipo ngati mungalankhule ndi gulu lankhondo, ndipo angakuuzeni, mwina chayandikira 2035,” Anatero Sung. “Koma ndiye nambala yowonetsera mzere wowongoka. Ngati mungaganizire zamitundu ina yankhondo kapena kuthekera kwa abwenzi owonjezera ndi ogwirizana nawo (a ku Taiwan) kubwera kudzatenga nawo mbali pazochitikazi, ndiye kuti tikukankhira mtsogolo mtsogolo. ”



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